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In her free time, she likes to play her piano, compose, play computer games and write poetry, [12] she is the subject of a biography for children by Verna Wilkins. In August , Malorie Blackman was one of public figures who were signatories to a letter to The Guardian opposing Scottish independence in the run-up to September's referendum on that issue.

Her novel Operation Gadgetman! Horror fiction Horror is a genre of speculative fiction, intended to frighten, disgust, or startle its readers by inducing feelings of horror and terror. Literary historian J. Cuddon defined the horror story as "a piece of fiction in prose of variable length It creates an frightening atmosphere. Horror is supernatural , though it can be non-supernatural; the central menace of a work of horror fiction can be interpreted as a metaphor for the larger fears of a society.

The horror genre has ancient origins with roots in folklore and religious traditions, focusing on death, the afterlife , the demonic and the principle of the thing embodied in the person; these were manifested in stories of beings such as witches, vampires and ghosts. European horror fiction became established through works by Ancient Romans ; the well-known 19th century novel about Frankenstein was influenced by the story of Hippolytus , where Asclepius revives him from death.

Euripides wrote plays based on Hippolytos Kalyptomenos and Hippolytus. Plutarch's "The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans: Cimon describes the spirit of a murderer, who himself was murdered in a bathhouse in Chaeronea. Pliny the Younger tells the tale of Athenodorus Cananites.

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Athenodorus was cautious. While writing a book on philosophy, he was visited by a spectre bound in chains; the figure disappeared in the courtyard. The earliest recording of an official accusation of Satanism by the Church took place in Toulouse in AD against a couple of clerics. Werewolf stories were popular in medieval French literature. One of Marie de France's twelve lais is a werewolf story titled " Bisclavret "; the Countess Yolande commissioned a werewolf story titled " Guillaume de Palerme ". Anonymous writers penned two werewolf stories, "Biclarel" and " Melion ". Much horror fiction derives from the cruellest personages of the 15th century.

A pamphlet published by Markus Ayrer is most notable for its woodcut imagery. The 18th century saw the gradual development of the Gothic horror genre, it drew on the written and material heritage of the Late Middle Ages , finding its form with Horace Walpole's seminal and controversial novel The Castle of Otranto. In fact, the first edition was published disguised as an actual medieval romance from Italy and republished by a fictitious translator. Once revealed as modern, many found it anachronistic , reactionary , or in poor taste — but it proved popular.

A significant amount of horror fiction of this era was written by women and marketed towards a female audience, a typical scenario being a resourceful female menaced in a gloomy castle. The Gothic tradition blossomed into the genre modern readers call horror literature in the 19th century. Loudon's " The Mummy! Wells ' The Invisible Man , Bram Stoker's Dracula ; each of these works created an enduring icon of horror seen in re-imaginings on the page and screen.

A proliferation of cheap periodicals around turn of the century led to a boom in horror writing. One writer who specialized in horror fiction for mainstream pulps such as All-Story Magazine was Tod Robbins , whose fiction deals with themes of madness and cruelty. Specialist publications emerged to give horror writers an outlet, prominent among them Weird Tales and Unknown Worlds.

Influential horror writers of the early 20th century made inroads in these mediums; the venerated horror author H. Lovecraft , his enduring Cthulhu Mythos pioneered the genre of cosmic horror, M. James is credited with redefining the ghost story in that era; the serial murderer became a recurring theme. Yellow journalism and sensationalism of various murderers, such as Jack the Ripper , lesser so, Carl Panzram , Fritz Haarman , Albert Fish , all perpetuated this phenomenon; the trend continued in the postwar era renewed after the murders committed by Ed Gein.

In , Robert Bloch , inspired by the murders, wrote Psycho. The crimes committed in by the Manson family influenced the slasher theme in horror fiction of the s. In , Thomas Harris wrote Red Dragon. In , the sequel to tha. Order of the British Empire The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry , rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, public service outside the civil service.

It was established on 4 June by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is the related British Empire Medal , whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were made on the nomination of the United Kingdom , the self-governing Dominions of the Empire and the Viceroy of India.

Nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, may permit use of post-nominal letters but not the title of Sir or Dame.

Honorary appointees are, referred to as Sir or Dame — Bob Geldof , for example. Honorary appointees who become a citizen of a Commonwealth realm can convert their appointment from honorary to substantive enjoy all privileges of membership of the order, including use of the title of Sir and Dame for the senior two ranks of the Order.

BBC - Pig Heart Boy (1999)

An example is Irish broadcaster Terry Wogan , appointed an honorary Knight Commander of the Order in , on successful application for British citizenship, held alongside his Irish citizenship, was made a substantive member and subsequently styled as Sir Terry Wogan. King George V founded the Order to fill gaps in the British honours system: The Orders of the Garter, of St Patrick honoured royals, peers and eminent military commanders.

In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War. When first established, the Order had only one division. However, in , soon after its foundation, it was formally divided into Military and Civil Divisions; the Order's motto is For the Empire. At the foundation of the Order, the'Medal of the Order of the British Empire' was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership.

In , this was renamed the'British Empire Medal', it stopped being awarded by the United Kingdom as part of the reforms to the honours system, but was again awarded beginning in , starting with BEMs awarded for Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. In addition, the BEM is awarded by some other Commonwealth nations.

In , a report entitled "A Matter of Honour: Reforming Our Honours System " by a Commons committee recommended to phase out the Order of the British Empire, as its title was "now considered to be unacceptable, being thought to embody values that are no longer shared by many of the country's population". The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, appoints all other members of the Order. There are no limits applied to the total number of members of the fourth and fifth classes, but no more than Officers and 1, Members may be appointed per year. Foreign appointees, as honorary members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do.

Although the Order of the British Empire has by far the highest number of members of the British Orders of Chivalry , with over , living members worldwide, there are fewer appointments to knighthoods than in other orders. Because of this, an appointment as Dame Commander is made in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor. For example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges. The Guardian The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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It was founded in as The Manchester Guardian , changed its name in Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly , the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group , owned by the Scott Trust ; the trust was created in to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference".

The trust was converted into a limited company in , with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner : she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in Since , the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of , The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies.

Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the s, a nickname still used today.

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A December report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October to September It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions.

While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World , the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June , The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden.

It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards : most in , for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle , a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer , a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters.

Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin , but they live better than those that do.

The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper. The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures".

In the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until ; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the Ten Hours Bill , the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure.

They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War , writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C.

Scott ma. Tamarind Books Tamarind Books was a small independent publisher specialising in picture books and non-fiction featuring black and Asian children and children with disabilities. For twenty years, Verna Wilkins ran Tamarind Books from her home, writing many of the books herself, working with the support of her family and a small group of friends and freelancers.

New books were published only.

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In the early years, she sold the books herself. Tamarind books were distributed by commercial distributors. In October , Wilkins retired from publishing and a successor, Patsy Isles, was announced. The titles that were published under the Tamarind Books imprint are now part of the Puffin and Ladybird lists.

United States The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. With a population of over million people, the U. The capital is Washington, D. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico ; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12, years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution , which began in , the subsequent Declaration of Independence in ; the war ended in with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in , with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights , being ratified in to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.

By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution , began to soar. The Spanish—American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower , the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.

Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of , the Voting Rights Act of and the Fair Housing Act of , outlawed discrimination based on race or color. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.

The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain " to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia , on April 6, The second draft of the Articles of Confederation , prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, , at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".

The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". Theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place a stage.

The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, song and dance. Modern Western theatre comes, in large measure, from the theatre of ancient Greece , from which it borrows technical terminology, classification into genres, many of its themes, stock characters, plot elements.

Theatre artist Patrice Pavis defines theatricality, theatrical language, stage writing and the specificity of theatre as synonymous expressions that differentiate theatre from the other performing arts and the arts in general. Modern theatre includes performances of musical theatre. The art forms of ballet and opera are theatre and use many conventions such as acting and staging, they were influential to the development of musical theatre.

The city-state of Athens is, it was part of a broader culture of theatricality and performance in classical Greece that included festivals, religious rituals, law and gymnastics, poetry, weddings and symposia. Participation in the city-state's many festivals—and mandatory attendance at the City Dionysia as an audience member in particular—was an important part of citizenship.

Civic participation involved the evaluation of the rhetoric of orators evidenced in performances in the law-court or political assembly, both of which were understood as analogous to the theatre and came to absorb its dramatic vocabulary; the Greeks developed the concepts of dramatic criticism and theatre architecture. Actors were either amateur or at best semi-professional ; the theatre of ancient Greece consisted of three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play.

The origins of theatre in ancient Greece, according to Aristotle , the first theoretician of theatre, are to be found in the festivals that honoured Dionysus. The performances were given in semi-circular auditoria cut into hillsides, capable of seating 10,—20, people; the stage consisted of a dancing floor, dressing scene-building area.

Since the words were the most important part, good acoustics and clear delivery were paramount; the actors wore masks appropriate to the characters they represented, each might play several parts. Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance-drama that formed an important part of the theatrical culture of the city-state. Having emerged sometime during the 6th century BCE, it flowered during the 5th century BCE, continued to be popular until the beginning of the Hellenistic period.


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No tragedies from the 6th century BCE and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in during the 5th century BCE have survived. We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus and Euripides. The origins of tragedy remain obscure, though by the 5th century BCE it was institutionalised in competitions held as part of festivities celebrating Dionysus. As contestants in the City Dionysia's competition playwrights were required to present a tetralogy of plays, which consisted of three tragedies and one satyr play; the performance of tragedies at the City Dionysia may have begun as early as BCE.

Most Athenian tragedies dramatise events from Greek mythology, though The Persians—which stages the Persian response to news of their military defeat at the Battle of Salamis in BCE—is the notable exception in the surviving drama; when Aeschylus won first prize for it at the City Dionysia in BCE, he had been writing tragedies for more than 25 years, yet its tragic treatment of recent history is the earliest example of drama to survive.

More than years the philosopher Aristotle analysed 5th-century Athenian tragedy in the oldest surviving work of dramatic theory—his Poetics. Old Comedy survives today in the form of the eleven surviving plays of Aristophanes , while Middle Comedy is lost. New Comedy is known from the substantial papyrus fragments of Menander. Aristotle defined comedy as a representation of laughable people that involves some kind of blunder or ugliness that does not cause pain or disaster. In addition to the categories of comedy and tragedy at the City Dionysia, the festival included the Satyr Play.

Finding its origins in rural, agricultural rituals dedicated to Dionysus, the satyr play found its way to Athens in its most well-known form.


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Satyr's themselves were tied to the god Dionysus as his loyal woodland companions engaging in drunken revelry and mischief at his side; the satyr play itself was classified as tragicomedy , erring. Screenplay A screenplay, or script, is a written work by screenwriters for a film, television program or video game. These screenplays can be original adaptations from existing pieces of writing. In them, the movement, actions and dialogues of the characters are narrated.

A screenplay written for television is known as a teleplay; the format is structured so that one page equates to one minute of screen time, though this is only used as a ballpark estimate and bears little resemblance to the running time of the final movie. The standard font is 10 pitch Courier Typeface ; the major components are dialogue. The action is written in the present tense and is limited to what can be heard or seen by the audience, for example descriptions of settings, character movements, or sound effects; the dialogue is the words the characters speak, is written in a center column.

Unique to the screenplay is the use of slug lines. A slug line called a master scene heading, occurs at the start of every scene and contains three pieces of information: whether the scene is set inside or outside, the specific location, the time of day. Each slug line begins a new scene. In a "shooting script" the slug lines are numbered consecutively for ease of reference.

American screenplays are printed single-sided on three-hole-punched paper using the standard American letter size, they are held together with two brass brads in the top and bottom hole. The middle hole is left empty as it would otherwise make it harder to read the script. In the United Kingdom , double-hole-punched A4 paper is used, taller and narrower than US letter size; some UK writers format the scripts for use in the US letter size when their scripts are to be read by American producers, since the pages would otherwise be cropped when printed on US paper.

Research Papers words 3 pages. In the beginning of the novel Black Boy, Richard maintained a facade, or superficial appearance, that blacks were equal to whites Research Papers words 2 pages. This prevented any of them from covering themselves. She arranged the girls in a line and led the group, slowly walking down the row of naked boys. Each girl started looking first at a butt, then a penis, and then another butt. At each boy, she stopped for nearly ten full seconds. The bleachers each boy stood on elevated him such that the specific areas of interest were positioned nearly at eye level for the girls.

As the girls followed slowly behind, they kept pace with their coach, eagerly checking out the boy in front of them, and grinning widely at the girls beside them Research Papers words 5 pages. The story is set in the 18th century and includes factual information which plays a vital part in the storyline. It uses this information whilst entertaining the readers with a fictional storyline.

A main factor in the storyline is the way the writer portrays society's attitude to poverty in the 18th century Free Essays words 4. Were people of his time to read this book it's probable that they would understand, wheather they agree with the author's point of view or not, the amount of violence and oppression witnessed by a boy his age Free Essays words 2. The kinds of hungers that Richard experiences in Black Boy are not evident in the society where you and I reside.

The present middle class citizens cannot really relate to true physical hunger. Hunger for most of us is when there is nothing that we desire to eat around the house and therefore skip one meal. This cannot even compare to the days that Richard endures without food. Physical hunger, however, is not the only hunger apparent in Richard's life Whether it is for food, for knowledge, or for love, hunger is everywhere and it mercilessly attacks anyone, young or old, black or white. In Richard Wright's autobiography, Black Boy, Wright suffers hunger for love, hunger for knowledge, and hunger for what he believes is right.

A constant need for love and care develops in Richard when he is young The bloody toil of combat. That the boyhood obsession with weapons has a terminus somewhere, that it ends in war. Research Papers words 2. Just years later, the Jews themselves were the culprits of racism labeling the very association with Samaritans as a deep sin.

Racism survives not simply as an intangible historic fable but as a real modern problem, also Research Papers words 4.